Statement of Ethical Practice for Use of Research Findings
The purpose of research efforts of the Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Center and its research scientists is three fold: 1) To conduct multiple ongoing research projects on OBH issues. 2) To increase accessibility to wilderness & adventure therapy research, and 3), to inform the public and professionals outside of the field of OBH on the true value of wilderness and adventure therapy.
It is critical that any research and evaluation reported on this website and subsequent publications involve ONLY those OBH programs mentioned in each study. In no way do the results reported in any study make claim to the effectiveness of outdoor behavioral healthcare programs beyond the scope of each study, the study program participants, and the findings reported herein.
To access publications by OBH Center Research Scientists Click Here.
Avery, M.E., Norton, C. L., & Tucker, A.R. (2018). Blazing a trail…together: The need for mentoring
and collaboration among women in outdoor leadership. In T. Gray & D. Mitten (Ed.), The
Palgrave Macmillan International Handbook of Women and Outdoor Learning (pp. 801-813). London,
England: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bettmann, J.E., Scheinfeld, D., Prince, K., Garland, E.L, & Ovrom, K. V. (2018). Changes in psychiatric symptoms and
psychological processes among veterans participating in a therapeutic adventure program. Psychological Services. Advanced online publication. doi; http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000213
Bettmann, J.E., Tucker, A., Behrens, E., & Vanderloo, M. (2017). Changes in older adolescents and young adults’
attachment, separation, and mental health during wilderness therapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(2), 511-522. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0577-4
Chang, T., Tucker, A., Javorski, S., Gass, M., & Norton, C. (2016). Cultural issues in adventure programming: Applying
Hofstede’s five dimensions to assessment and practice. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning. 17(4), 307-320. doi:10.1080/14729679.2016.1259116
Chapman et al., (2018). The relationship between self-reported prior drug use and treatment effectiveness
in substance use disorder during outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment for young adult males. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 10, 92-105.
Curtis, A., Briggs, J., & Behrens, E. (2018). Young adults in residential treatment and outdoor behavioral health
programs: Preliminary outcomes from the Practice Research Network of the National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 10, 65-91.
DeMille, S., Tucker, A., Gass, M., Javorski, S., VanKanegan, C., Talbot, B., & Karoff, M. (2018). The effectiveness of
Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare with struggling adolescents: A comparison group study. Child and Youth Service Review, 88, 241-248. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.03.015
Gabrielsen, L. E., & Harper, N. J. (2017). The role of wilderness therapy for adolescents in the face of global trends of
urbanization and technification. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 1-13.
Gass, M., Foden, E., & Tucker, A.R. (2017). Program evaluation for health and human service programs: How to tell the
right story successfully. In J. D. Christenson & A. N. Merritts (Eds). Family therapy with adolescents in residential settings: Intervention and research (pp. 425-441). New York: Springer.
Harper, N. J., Gabrielsen, L. E., & Carpenter, C. (2018). A cross-cultural exploration of ‘wild’in wilderness therapy:
Canada, Norway and Australia. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 18(2), 148-164.
Karoff, M., Tucker, A.T., Alvarez, M.A., & Kovacs, P. (2017). Infusing a peer to peer support program with adventure
therapy for adolescent students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal for Experiential Education, 40(4), 394-408. doi: 10.1177/1053825917727551
Lim, C., Donovan, A. M., Harper, N. J., & Naylor, P. J. (2017). Nature Elements and Fundamental Motor Skill
Development Opportunities at Five Elementary School Districts in British Columbia. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(10), 1279.
Norton, C.L., & Peyton, J. (2017). Mindfulness-based practice in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Journal of
Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 9(1), 7-20.
Norton, C.L., & Tucker, A.R.., Farnham, M., Borroel, F., & Pelletier, A. (2017). Family enrichment adventure therapy: A
mixed methods study examining the impact of trauma-informed adventure therapy on children and families affected by abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma. Advanced online publication.doi: 10.1007/s40653-017-0133-4
Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Combs, K. M. (2016). Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare: Client and
Treatment Characteristics Effects on Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education , 39(3), 288-302
Roberts, S., Stroud, D., Hoag, M. J., & Massey, K. (2017). Outdoor behavioral healthcare: A longitudinal assessment of
young adult outcomes. Journal of Counseling and Development, 95, 45-55.
Russell, K., & Gillis, H. L. (2017). The Adventure Therapy Experience Scale: The psychometric properties of a scale to
measure the unique factors moderating an adventure therapy experience. Journal of Experiential Education, Advance online publication. doi: 1053825917690541.
Russell, K., Gillis, H.L., Law, L., & Couillard, J. (2018). A pilot study examining outcomes associated with the
implementation of progress monitoring at a substance use disorder treatment program for adolescents. Child and Youth Care Forum. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9437-2
Tucker, A., Combs, K. M., Bettman, J., Chang, T., Graham, S., Hoag, M., & Tatum, C. (2018). Longitudinal outcomes for
youth transported to wilderness therapy programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(4), 438-451 doi: 10.1177/1049731516647486.
For additional information on research specific questions for researchers
or the OBH Center, see contact page.